Nobel Prize OTHER BRANCHES 2011
Sweden’s Nobel committee at Stockholm's Karolinska institute said three scientists won the Nobel Prize in medicine for discoveries about the immune system that opened new avenues for the treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses and cancer. American Bruce Beutler and French scientist Jules Hoffmann shared the 10 million-kronor ($1.5 million) award with Canadian-born Ralph Steinman.
Three US-born scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics for overturning a fundamental assumption in their field by showing that the expansion of the universe is constantly accelerating. During the 1990s, Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess found that the light from more than 50 distant exploding stars was far weaker than they expected, meaning that galaxies had to be racing away from each other at increasing speed.
Israeli scientist Dan Shechtman was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for a discovery that faced skepticism and mockery. While doing research in the US in 1982, Shechtman discovered a new chemical structure, quasicrystals, that researchers previously thought was impossible.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded Americans Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won for their research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.